Thanksgiving Turkey Tips
Selecting, Cooking, and Storing this Thanksgiving Favorite
-- By Becky Hand, Licensed & Registered Dietitian
Is it your turn to host the annual Thanksgiving feast for the entire family? Tackling a turkey—without being traumatized—isn’t that tough. So let’s talk turkey.
With the bird flu scare, is it safe to eat turkey for Thanksgiving?
Eating properly cooked and handled poultry is safe. The United States government has banned imported poultry from countries affected by bird flu. European health officials report that cooking kills the virus and are assuring people that it is safe to eat poultry.
What size turkey should I buy?
You’ll need about one pound per person, or a pound and a half per person if you have hearty eaters or want ample leftovers.
When should I buy the turkey?
While the quality and taste of frozen and fresh turkey are quite similar, the keeping time is not. A frozen turkey can be purchased months in advance, but a fresh bird should be bought only 1 to 2 days ahead.
What kind of turkey should I buy?
Personal preference usually dictates this choice. There are basically two types of raw birds to choose from:
A pre-basted bird contains ingredients such as vegetable oil, broth, and spices.
An un-basted bird has had nothing added.
USDA Grade A poultry has good shape, structure, and fat covering, and is free of pinfeathers and defects, such as cuts and bruises. Grade A is the highest quality grade for poultry and is the most common grade found in stores.
Is a “Tom” better than a hen?
Age, not gender, is the determining factor of tenderness. All turkeys on the market are young, usually 4-6 months old. A hen generally weighs less than 16 pounds and a tom usually over 16 pounds.
How long will it take to defrost a turkey?
It is best to defrost your turkey in the refrigerator. The rule of thumb is to allow a minimum of 24 hours for every 5 pounds of turkey:
8-12 pounds defrosts in 1 to 2 days
12-16 pounds defrosts in 2 to 3 days
16-20 pounds defrosts in 3 to 4 days
20-24 pounds defrosts in 4 to 5 days
If you need to speed up the defrost time, it is safe to defrost the turkey in a large utility sink of cold water. Submerge the wrapped bird in cold water. If the wrapping is torn, place the bird in another plastic bag, close securely, and then place in water. Change the water every 30 minutes to make sure the water remains cold. With this method, allow 30 minutes of defrost time per pound.
Turkeys can be thawed in the microwave oven. Since microwaves vary in what they can accommodate, check with the manufacturer’s instructions for the size that will fit in your oven, the minutes per pound, and the power level to use when thawing.
To save time, is it safe to stuff the turkey in advance of cooking?
NO! It may seem like a good idea to save time, but harmful bacteria can multiply in the stuffing and cause food poisoning. Turkeys should be stuffed only at the last minute. Dry stuffing ingredients can be prepared the day before, tightly covered and left at room temperature. The perishable items (butter, margarine, mushrooms, oysters, broth, cooked celery and onions) can be mixed and refrigerated. The ingredients can then be combined just before stuffing and cooking.
How long should I roast the turkey?
Preheat your oven to 325 degrees. Roasting times vary, from roughly 15-18 minutes per pound for an un-stuffed bird, to 18-24 minutes per pound for a stuffed bird.
Can the turkey be cooked overnight at a lower temperature?
NO! Because of the low temperature (250 degrees), the turkey and stuffing can take more than 4 hours to reach a high enough temperature to destroy bacteria.
Can the turkey be partially roasted one day, and complete the roasting the next day?
NO! Interrupted cooking enhances the possibility of bacterial growth.
Can you roast the turkey the day before?
YES! In fact, more and more people are taking this route. However, for safety reasons, the cooked bird MUST be de-boned before being refrigerated. The carved meat should be stored in shallow containers. The meat can then be reheated in the regular oven the next day for approximately 10 minutes per pound. To prevent the meat from drying out, add the leftover meat drippings, gravy, or turkey broth and cover with foil.
How can you tell when the turkey is done?
Using a meat thermometer is the most reliable method. Insert the thermometer into the thickest part of the thigh muscle without touching the bone. This area heats most slowly. A whole turkey is done when the temperature reaches 180 to 185 degrees; stuffing temperature should reach 165 degrees.
Another test is to press the fleshy part of the thigh with protected fingers. If the meat feels soft, or if the leg moves up and down easily and the hip joint gives readily or breaks, the turkey is done.
Doneness can also be determined by inserting a long-tined fork into the thickest area of the inner thigh. If the juices run clear—not pink—the turkey is done.
What should I do with the leftovers?
Once the turkey is removed from the oven, you have approximately 2 hours to serve it, eat it, and get the leftovers refrigerated or frozen. Leftovers can keep in the refrigerator for about 3-4 days, but use stuffing and gravy within 1-2 days.